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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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\plain \cbpat8\ql\li1814\fi0\ri0\sb587\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 274        NALANDA : CURRENCY : ARCHITECTURE}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1814\fi0\ri0\sb227\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Mahdbhdrata. \i0 In addition to these, instruction must have \expndtw4 been imparted in the large mass of secular literature.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1822\fi461\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The catholicity of the age may further be judged* \expndtw3 from the fact that Nalanda, the great centre of Buddhist' \expndtw10 learning, was founded about the middle of the fifthj \expndtw7 century A.D.  by   Sakraditya, probably Kumaragupta \expndtw5 I, who endowed a monastery there.    Additional grants to the establishment were made by Budhagupta, Tatha-\expndtw3 gatagupta, Balsditya, and other Gupta monarchs. Nalan\-\expndtw0 da followed a very comprehensive curriculum of studies, ; \expndtw2 and in due course it rose to such eminence that students \i ' \i0\expndtw14 from all parts of India,  and even from  beyond its \expndtw8 frontiers, flocked here in order to satisfy their mental \expndtw5 and spiritual thirst.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1843\fi0\ri0\sb227\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 Gupta currency}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li1836\fi454\ri76\sb180\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The earliest gold coins of Samudragupta (or of \expndtw-2 Candragupta I?), weighing 118-122 grains, closely follow \expndtw11 the Kushan standard and types. The influence of \expndtw1 foreign coinage is also proved by the use in the Gupta \expndtw-3 inscriptions or the Kushan name of \i Dinar a., \i0 derived from \expndtw-1 Latin \i Denarius. \i0 However, in the time of Candragupta II, \expndtw4 whose coins are of 124 to 132 grains there began a \expndtw1 deviation from the Kushan (Roman) weight until it was \expndtw2 given up by Skandagupta in favour of the Hindu stan\-\expndtw-2 dard of \i Suvarna \i0 (146 grains). After the conquest of the \expndtw3 Ksatrapa territories, the Guptas too issued silver coins; \expndtw2 on the Saka standard of 32 grains, which was subse-\expndtw0 quently raised by Skandagupta to that of the \i Kdrsdpana, \i0\expndtw4 It may be added that the copper coinage of the Guptas \expndtw0 is very scarce, perhaps because small transactions weie \expndtw2 then made in cowrie-shells, as observed by Fa-hian.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1861\fi0\ri0\sb169\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 Architecture}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li1850\fi461\ri158\sb140\sa0\sl-245\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The Gupta rule gave a great impetus to architecture, \expndtw5 although owing to a combination of causes the extant}\par }